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动名词串讲教案

作者: 来源: 日期:2015-4-7 17:34:56 人气:1886
1.动名词由动词 + ing构成,否定形式为not doing,具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作主语、宾语、表语和定语。 
1)作主语。如: Seeing is believing.  Laying eggs is the ant queen’s full-time job.  It is no use arguing with him.  
注意:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。如: Playing with fire is dangerous. (泛指玩火) 
To play with fire will be dangerous. (指一具体动作) 
但在It is no use/good, not any use/good, useless等后常用动名词间或用不定式。 
2)作表语。如: Her job is teaching.  
3)作宾语。如: He is fond of playing football.  I like swimming.  
以下知识点需要特别注意:
①admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,face,feel,like,finish,forgive,give up,imagine,include,keep,mention,mind,miss,practise,put off,resist,risk,suggest,can’t help(情不自禁),can’t stand(无法忍受)等动词成词组后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式。
在短语devote to,look forward to,stick to,to be used to,object to,thank you for,excuse me for,be(kept) busy,have difficulty/trouble/problem(in),have a good/wonderful/hard time(in),there’s no use/good/need,feel/seem like/get down to等后的动词也必须用动名词形式,例如: I look forward to hearing from you soon.  
以上动词或动词词组接宾语时候,必须用V+ing的形式。 
②forget,go on,mean,regret,remember,stop,try等动词或词组可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。 
动名词与不定式的不同含义:
1)   be afraid to do     不敢、害怕、胆怯去做某事
     be afraid of doing  担心、恐怕出现
She was afraid ______( wake ) her husband up, for he had bad temper.
She was afraid ______( wake ) her husband, for he was ill. 
2)forget to do sth.  忘记去做某事(未做)
forget doing sth.  忘记做过了某事(已做)


     The light in the office is off. It was she who turned it off, but she herself forgot _______( turn ) it off.
     The light in the office is still on. She forgot ______(turn )it off.
3)  remember to do sth.记着去做某事(未做)
    remember doing sth.记着做了某事(已做)
    Do you remember ______(meet) me at a party last year?
You must remember ______( leave) tomorrow.
4)   stop to do sth.
    stop doing sth.
 5)   regret to do sth. 遗憾地说/告诉…
    regret doing sth. 后悔做了…
    I regret _____( go ) to his home town.
I regret _____( tell ) you the truth.
6)   try to do sth.   尽力做某事
     try doing sth.  尝试做某事
    You must try _____( do ) it again.
    Let’s try _____( do ) the work in some other way.
7)    mean to do sth.=plan to do sth.
      mean doing sth.意味着做某事
  If it means _____( delay ) more than a week, I’ll not wait.
I mean _____( go ), and nothing can stop me.
8)   go on to do sth. 继续做另一件事情
     go on doing sth.继续做同一件事情
9) can’t help doing sth.  情不自禁,不禁 
can’t help (to) do sth. 不能帮忙做… …
10)  permit / allow / advise  + doing sth. 
          + sb. to do sth.
 11) start / begin / continue / like / love / hate  + to do sth. 二者皆可
                        + doing sth.
Let’s go on studying Lesson 6. (让我们继续学第六课。说明前面已学了一部分。) 
Let’s go on to study Lesson 6.  (让我们接着学第六课。说明前面已学了第五课。) 


③在allow,advise,forbid,permit等动词后直接跟动名词形式作宾语,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,其后用动词不定式作宾语补足语。如: 
We don’t allow smoking here.  We don’t allow students to smoke.  
④动词need,require,want作“需要”解,其后必须用动名词的主动形式或不定式的被动形式作宾语表示事情需要做,这时,动名词的主动式表示被动意义。be worth后必须用动名词的主动形式来表示被动意义。如: 
The window needs/requires/wants cleaning/to be cleaned.  
Her method is worth trying.  
⑤在love,hate,prefer,like等动词后用动名词或不定式无多大区别。有时用动名词作宾语时,指一般情况,而跟不定式作宾语时指某一具体行为。 
既可以用to do,又可以用ing形式;
⑥start,begin,continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。 
但start和begin在下列情况下一般跟不定式作宾语:当主语是物而不是人时;当start或begin以-ing形式出现时,当后面作宾语的动词表示感情、思想或意念时。如: 
It started to snow.  He is beginning to cook dinner. I began to understand what he meant.  
⑦在should(would) like/love等后须用不定式。 
4)作定语,例如: He has a reading room.  
2.动名词的复合结构 (本条目不做讲述)
动名词的复合结构由物主代词或人称代词宾格、名词所有格或普通格加动名词构成。在句子开头必须用名词所有格或物主代词。如果动名词的复合结构作宾语,其逻辑主语是无生命的名词时,用普通格。如: 
His coming made me very happy.  
Mary’s crying annoyed him.  
She didn’t mind his crying.  
Is there any hope of Xiao Wang’s winning.?He insists on the plan being carried out.  
3.动名词的时态和语态 (不做细致讲解,只点到和“不定式”相同即可)
动名词的时态分一般式和完成式两种,如果动名词的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语词所表示的动作同时发生或在谓语动词所表示的动作以前发生,用动名词的一般式。如: 
We are interested in playing chess.  
His coming will be of great help to us.  
如果动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用动名词的完成时态。如: 
I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.  
在某些动词或词组后,常用动名词的一般形式,尽管其动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的。如:Excuse me for coming late.  
主语是动名词所表示的动作的对象时,动名词用被动语态。被动语态由“being + 过去分词”或“having been + 过去分词”构成。后一种一般很少使用,以免使句子显得累赘。如: 
He likes being helped.  
He was afraid of being left at home.  
I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to do it.  
格外要注意的一点:
It作形式主语时,可用动词不定式,但下列句型常用动名词:
It is + no good (no use, fun, a waste of time) +doing…
There is no + doing….
如: 1.   It’s no use ______( sit ) here waiting.
     2.   There is no ______( say )what will happen next.
     3.   Is it any good ______( tell ) him the truth?
     4.   It is great fun _____ (play) golf.
下一个:系动词分析
 
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