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would rather的用法与变式

作者: 来源: 日期:2015-4-7 17:32:10 人气:2014
“would rather+动词原形”是英语中常见的一个惯用句式(美国英语中多用had rather)。’d rather为would(或had)rather的缩写形式。would (had)在此决无“过去”之意,且无词性、时态的变化。该句式常用来表示选择的意愿,意为“宁可……;宁愿……;最好……”。例如: 
He'd rather work in the countryside. 他宁可到农村去工作。 
If you'd rather be alone, we'll all leave here. 
如果你宁愿独自呆着,那我们都离开这儿。 
You would rather stay at home and do some reading this evening. 
今晚你最好呆在家里看点书。 

二、 would rather与than连用,可构成另一个惯用句式,即:“would rather...than....”意为“宁可(愿)……(而)不要(愿)……;与其……不如……”。用以表达主语的意愿,强调经过选择后做其中一件事,而不愿做另一件事。例如: 
I would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema. 
我宁可在家看电视而不愿去看电影。 

三、在使用“would rather...than...”句型时,应注意以下几点: 
1. than 后边也应接动词原形,但如该句型前后连接的两个动词相同,则than之后的那个动词可省去。例如: 
I'd rather know that now than afterwards. 我宁可现在就知道这件事,而不是以后。 
2. would rather...than...也可改写成 “would...rather than...”,其用法及含义仍不变。例如:Facing the enemies, our soldiers would die rather than surrender. 面对敌人,我们的战士宁死不屈。 
3. 有时为了表示语气上的强调,可将rather than置于句首。例如: 
Rather than refuse to help you, I would borrow money from my friends. 我宁可向朋友借钱,也不愿拒绝帮助你。 
4. would rather后也可跟从句,表示主语宁愿让某人干某事。这时,从句谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即用一般过去时表示现在或将来要做的事;用过去完成时表示已经做过的事或过去要做的事。例如: 
I'd rather she set out to do the work now. 我宁愿她现在就着手做这项工作。 
I'd rather you met her at the airport tomorrow morning. 我但愿你明天早上能在机场见到她。 
I'd rather you hadn't told him the news that day. 我真希望你那天没有把那个消息告诉他。 
5. would rather后还可接动词的完成式,表示主语要做某事,而结果却事与愿违。例如: 
I'd rather have left a note on her desk. 
我本想留张字条在她书桌上的。(事实上没有留) 
试比较 
I'd rather I left a note on her desk. 我宁可留张字条在她的书桌上。 
rather than, prefer 与 would rather 
  在英语中,表示“偏爱”、“优先”、“更喜欢”、“更可取”或“宁愿”等意思时,可用prefer,would rather和rather than来表达。三个词之间在表达和用法上的异同如下:
(—)rather than
  ①rather than必须连接两个平行结构,即并联两个词(如名词、代词),两个动词不定式或并联两个短语或分句。
如:John ought to go rather than Mary.约翰比玛丽更应该去。
  ②当rather than并联两个动词不定式时,后一个动词不定式一般省略to(在比较正式的文体中也可以保留to)。
如In China,it is important to invest in education rather than(to)increase personal wages.在中国,优先投资教育比增加个人工资重要。
(二)prefer
①prefer之后用动名词结构表示一般性偏爱,强调一种事实或一件事。
如:l like swimming,but I prefer sailing.我喜欢游泳,但更喜欢航行。
②当prefer之后带两个动词不定式表示“偏爱…胜过…”时,用rather than连接。Rather than之后可以有两种结构:省略to的动词不定式和动词的ing形式。
如:1 would prefer to spend the weekend at home rather than drive out.我宁愿在家度周末,而不愿意开车出门。
③当prefer之后带两个名词或动名词结构表示“偏爱…胜过…”时,常用介词to连接两个部分,也可以用rather than连接。
如:I prefer watching TV to reading books. 我宁可看电视,也不愿意看书。
④prefer之后可以用动词不定式作宾语补足语。
如:I don’t prefer people to smoke here.我不喜欢有人在这儿抽烟。
⑤prefer之后带从句时,其用法与would rather带从句的用法相同。
如:I’d prefer that you did not go there alone.我希望你不要一个人到那里去。
(三)would rather
①would rather是固定习惯用语,可用于任何人称,其简略形式是 ’d rather。would rather之后直接带省略to的动词不定式。
如:Would you rather stay at home or go out with me? 你愿意呆在家里,还是愿意跟我出门?
②would rather还可以与than连用,构成“would rather+省略to的不定式+than+省略to的不定式”结构。
如:Tom would rather read than talk.=Tom prefers reading to talking.汤姆喜爱读书胜过与人交谈。
③would rather之后带从句时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气,即用过去式表示现在或将来的意义,用过去完成式表示过去的意义。
如:I’d rather she had repaired her car last night. =I wish she had repaired her car last night. 但愿她昨晚就把车修好了。
④一般来说。would rather之后跟动词原形表达的意思是“偏爱,宁愿”,但如果其后跟动词hope,think,like,enjoy和have等时,would rather则含有“很,非常”的意思。请比较:
I’d rather like reading.我很喜欢读书。
I’m not sure,but I’d rather think so. 我没有十分把握,但认为很可能如此。
专项巩固练习。 
1. 选择最佳答案。 
1) —Shall I open the window to let some fresh air in?       
—No, _______ . 
A. I'd rather not     B. I'd rather you not    
C. I'd rather you didn't D. I'd like not to 


2) I would rather you _______ with us yesterday, but you left. 
A. had stayed.     B. stay         C. stayed         D. have stayed 
3) — _______ , I think well of him. 
—But I would rather _______ to see him yesterday. 
A. Personally; go                 B. Personally; have gone 
C. As far as I am concerned; /           D. As far as I am concerned; went 
4) —Do you mind if I keep pets in this building? 
— _______ . 
A. I'd rather you didn't , actually         B. Of course not, it's not allowed here 
C. Great! I love pets                 D. No, you can't 
5) —Would you _______ have tea or wine?         
— _______ . I prefer coffee. 
A. rather; Either       B. rather; Neither      
C. like; Neither   D. rather; Both 
6) —Did you quarrel with the boss?               
—Yes, but _______ that. 
A. I'd rather do                   B. I'd like to do      
C. I'd rather not have done that          D. I'd like to have done 


2. 完成句子。 
1) I would rather _______ (去).         
2) I would rather _______ (不去). 
3) I would rather ______________(你常去那). 
4) I would rather ______________ (你明天去那). 
5) I would rather ______________ (你昨天去了那). 
6) I would rather ______________ (去那而不待在这). 
7) I would rather ________________ (很受罪而不愿你去那). 


答案与解析 
1. 1)答案C。本题考查情景交流用语。I'd rather not是I'd rather not open the window.的省略句,意思是“我不愿开窗”。I'd rather 后不跟you not 结构,B项语法不正确。I'd rather 后可跟从句,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时态,所以选项C为正确答案。 
2)答案 A。解此题的关键是would rather后接从句,从句用虚拟语气,用过去完成时表示过去要做的事,又根据信息词yesterday 进一步说明选项A是正确的。 
3)答案 B。根据信息词yesterday。 
4)答案A。意为“实际上,我但愿你不要(养宠物)”, 正好符合语境。 
5)答案 B。考查would rather do something句式和neither的用法。两者都表否定。 
6)答案 C。意为:“我但愿过去没有和他争吵”。符合语境。 
在做题中,尤其要注意对would rather have done something的理解,它和其他情态动词的完成体用法类似, 表示“宁愿(过去)做了某事”,实际上没做。 
2. 1) go 2) not go 3) you often went there 4) you went there tomorrow 5) you had gone there yesterday 6) go there than stay here 7) suffer a lot than you would go there
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